Because mathematics is often misunderstood, it is commonly believed it has nothing to say about politics. The high school experience with mathematics, for so many the lasting impression of the subject, suggests that mathematics is the study of operations, formulas, numbers, and manipulations of symbols. Those believing this is the extent of mathematics might conclude mathematics has no relevance to politics. This ebook* The Mathematics of Politics 2nd Edition (PDF)* counters this impression. The

*of this popular book focuses on mathematical reasoning about politics. In the search for ideal ways to make certain kinds of decisions, a lot of wasted effort can be averted if mathematics can determine that finding such an ideal is impossible in the first place. In the first three parts of this book, we address the following three political questions: (1) Is there a good way to choose winners of elections? (2) Is there a good way to apportion congressional seats? (3) Is there a good way to make decisions in conflict and uncertainty? In this book’s fourth and final part, we examine the Electoral College system used in the United States to select a president. We bring together ideas introduced in each of the three earlier parts of the book.*

**second edition**
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